Friday, November 29, 2019

Lifespan development and the human servises

Every stage of human development is significant and unique as people develop, acquire new knowledge and adopt new behavioural models.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Lifespan development and the human servises specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, in infancy (up to one year), the child is dependent on its parents; in childhood (1-10 years old), children rapidly develop physically, mentally and socially; adolescence (12-18 years old) is characterised by numerous transformations and adulthood is the period of functioning of fully developed individuals, though there can also be certain mental and behavioural transformations (Shaffer Kipp 2009). Notably, adolescence stands out as this is the period of considerable emotional turmoil and physical transformation. Adolescents learn how to function in the society and fully develop their behavioural models. During this period, people have to make a lot of choices and are in search for their selves. From theoretical perspective, this period provides new insights into the attachment theory, which will be discussed below. It is also necessary to note that adolescents are the most vulnerable group in the contemporary society as globalisation and rapid development of technology provides numerous challenges for these young people. Therefore, adolescence is a period which requires special attention. It is necessary to note that adolescents have to cope with rapid transformation of their bodies. This physical transformation affects psychological development of adolescents to a great extent (Swanson, Edwards Spencer 2010). Birnbaum and Linver (2013) stress that this is the period when people become active in all respects, i.e. need extra physical activity and are active in forming relationships. This is the period when young people experience their sexuality and often have their first sexual experience, which can affects further development of their person ality (Tolman McClelland 2011). It is noteworthy that their behaviour often changes and they form new attachments. Apart from physical development, adolescents acquire an important skill which helps them function in the society. Hence, they develop self-regulatory tools which shape their behaviour (Gestsdottir Lerner 2008). Self-regulation is important as adolescents learn how to live in the world of adulthood.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As has been mentioned above, adolescents face a variety of challenges. Apart from experiencing their physical transformation (which is quite a serious challenge), adolescents make attempts to become a part of a larger group. Clearly, young people try to understand who they are, but they also feel the need to fit in (Schwartz 2008). This is the period when their attachment to parents decreases and they search for new relationships (Smetana, Cam pione-Barr Metzger 2006). This period is often associated with neglect of rules and desire to break them. Researchers note that this process is often guided by parents, schools, religious institution. For instance, Morris et al. (2007) claim that the family plays a substantial role in development of self-regulation in adolescents. At the same time, Trommsdorff (2012) notes that religious values also shape the way adolescents behave and develop their self-regulatory tools. Apart from the search of their identity, adolescents have to face challenges brought by globalisation. Thus, adolescents pertaining to minorities are often marginalised and face additional challenges as it is harder for them to fit in due to their cultural, ethnic and/or religious peculiarities. Thus, French, Seidman, Allen and Aber (2006) note that African American and Latino American adolescents have to cope with numerous issues as they are often neglected. It is also acknowledged that these issues are especiall y vivid in school settings as adolescents are bound to interact and their otherness comes to the forefront (Fuller Coll 2010; Lam 2007). Furthermore, globalisation is also associated with economic issues which have a significant impact on the development of adolescents. Hence, Hempel, Wuermli and Lundberg (2012) note that economic difficulties families have to face put more pressure on adolescents. First, they are exposed to their parents’ arguments. Adolescents can also feel they cannot become a part of some groups due to lack of money. This makes adolescents search for other ways to find their selves. This new search can lead to some subcultures and substance abuse. However, there are many ways to help adolescents to find their identity without violating laws and becoming outcasts. This is where attachment theory can be applicable. The most critical argument of the theory is that â€Å"child’s relationship with a primary caregiver during infancy is critically impor tant to later development and serves as a prototype for the child’s relationships throughout the lifespan† (Washington 2008, p. 8). Therefore, the closer parents (or a caregiver) and an infant are, the closer tight they will form in the future. In other words, according to this theory, parents can help their child develop strong attachment to them and this will help them avoid numerous issues in their child’s adolescence. This can be true as there are many examples of families where adolescents remain attached to their parents.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Lifespan development and the human servises specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, some researchers have claimed that the theory is out-dated and the period in question is the brightest examples for that. Thus, Smetana (2010) stresses that adolescents tend to alienate themselves for their parents or older relatives as they try to beco me a part of a group of peers. Adolescents often find models among their peers and tend to think that older generations simply try to restrict their basic rights. This is one of the major limitations to the theory as it is clear that although some children can be attached to their parents, they can change during their adolescence. A number of transformations (both physical and mental) often shape adolescents’ personality. However, even though this trend is also common, it does not mean that the attachment theory is totally out-dated. Admittedly, there are certain limitations, but they show that the theory should be considered from a slightly different angle. Thus, it is doubtless that the way caregivers treat children has a significant impact on the child’s development. However, transformations taking place during adolescents can diminish this effect. At the same time, adolescents do not lose all ties with their parents. Attachment does not disappear, but transforms in to new forms. During adolescence, young people tend to form new attachments as they interact with their peers. Thus, the theory can be applied and it can help parents, adolescents, educators, social workers and psychologists assist adolescents find their selves and learn how to live in the society. In conclusion, it is possible to note that adolescence is one of the most meaningful and difficult periods in people’s lives. This is the period of great physical and psychological transformation. This is also the period when adolescents find their selves and learn how to be a part of the society. Contemporary adolescents often face numerous challenges which are related to globalisation. However, the use of the attachment theory can help researchers find ways to better understand this period. Reference List Birnbaum, AS Linver, MR 2013, ‘Adolescent physical development and health’, in G Creasey PA Jarvis (eds), Adolescent development and school achievement in urban c ommunities: resilience in the neighbourhood, Routledge, Oxon, pp. 53-65. French, SE, Seidman, E, Allen, L Aber, JL 2006, ‘The development of ethnic identity during adolescence’, Developmental Psychology, vol. 42. no. 1, pp. 1-10.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fuller, B Coll, CG 2010, ‘Learning from Latinos: contexts, families, and child development in motion’, Developmental Psychology, vol. 46. no. 3, pp. 559-565. Gestsdottir, S Lerner, RM 2008, ‘Positive development in adolescence: the development and role of intentional self-regulation’, Human Development, vol. 51. no. 1, pp. 202-224. Hempel, K, Wuermli, A Lundberg, M 2012, ‘Adolescence: protecting and promoting human development in times of economic shocks’, Labour Markets and Youth, no. 13, pp. 1-4. Lam, C 2007, ‘Towards a Chinese conception of adolescent development in a migration context’, The Scientific World Journal, vol. 7. no. 1, pp. 506-518. Morris, AS, Silk, JS, [†¦] Robinson, LR 2007, ‘The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation’, Social Development, vol. 16. no. 2, pp. 361-388. Schwartz, SJ 2008, ‘Self and identity in early adolescence’, Journal of Early Adoles cence, vol. 28. no. 1, pp. 5-15. Shaffer, DR Kipp, K 2009, Developmental psychology: childhood adolescence, Cengage Learning, Belmont, CA. Smetana, JG 2010, Adolescents, families, and social development: how teens construct their worlds, John Wiley Sons, Oxford, UK. Smetana, JG, Campione-Barr, N Metzger, A 2006, ‘Adolescent development in interpersonal and societal contexts’, Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 57. no. 1, pp. 255-284. Swanson, DP, Edwards, MC Spencer, MB 2010, Adolescence: development during a global era, Academic Press, London, UK. Tolman, DL McClelland, SI 2011, ‘Normative sexuality development in adolescence: a decade in review’, Journal of Research on Adolescence, vol. 21. no. 1, pp. 242-255. Trommsdorff, G 2012, Cultural perspectives on values and religion in adolescent development, http://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/20981. Washington, KT 2008, ‘Attachment and alternatives: theory in child welfare research’, Advances in Social Work, vol. 9. no. 1, pp. 8-16. This essay on Lifespan development and the human servises was written and submitted by user Aliyah Carr to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Equine strangles Essay Example

Equine strangles Essay Example Equine strangles Essay Equine strangles Essay Equine equine distempers is caused byStreptococcus equiracesequi(S. equi) , a Lancefield group C bacteria. It’s an obligate pathogen of the upper respiratory piece of land of the Equus caballus and is characterised by contagious suppurative lymphadenopathy of the caput and cervix ( Jorm et al. 1994 ) .S. equihas the ability to set up sub-clinical relentless infection, peculiarly in the croaky pouches of retrieving Equus caballuss. Its inability to last in the environment lends itself good to command and obliteration, foregrounding the importance of these persistently septic Equus caballuss in the epidemiology of the disease ( Newton et al. 1997 ) . An eruption of equine distempers on a bilious pace can be complex. Successful disease containment is frequently extremely debatable and confounded by multiple non-veterinary factors. In July 2014 a instance of equine distempers was diagnosed at a big livery pace by a neighbouring pattern. Clients on the pace used three different veterinary patterns between them doing communicating vital in pull offing the eruption. A new add-on to the pace is the presumed cause of the eruption in a naive herd. The index instance presented with mucopurulent nasal discharge, lymphadenopathy and an acute-onset febrility, 39.0Oc. In the first hebdomad following diagnosing six of the seven in contacts became pyrexic ; runing from 38.9-40.0Oc. Two of these six developed sore throat but no Equus caballuss in this eruption developed abscessation. Anorexia and dysphagia may happen due to lymph node compaction on the pharynx or secondary to pharyngitis ( Sweeney et al. 2005 ) . Complications are uncommon but include metastatic infection, pupura haemorrhagica, myositis and seldom glomerulonephritis, myocardial inflammation or agalactosis ( Sweeney et al. 1987 ) . S. equiinfection is acquired via the unwritten or rhinal path through contaminated vehicles ; pails, H2O troughs, custodies, and tack for illustration. It adheres to the nasopharynx for a transeunt period before occupying the tonsillar crypts and come ining into the lymph nodes of the caput and cervix ( Timoney, 1993 ) . Within the lymph nodes neutrophils effort to phagocytose the bacteriums nevertheless it is peculiarly immune due to its antiphagocytic M-protein, hyaluronic acid capsule and leukocidal toxin. This uneffective immune response leads to a rise in organic structure temperature, which is of import to supervise.S. equimultiplies within the lymph node and becomes surrounded by pervert neutrophils, which cause abscessation. This can tear either externally through the tegument or internally through the respiratory mucous membrane into the croaky pouches ( Newton et al. 1997 ) . If pussy stuff persists feasible bacteriums becomes entrapped by proteinacious chondroids. This can stay soundless taking to intermittent casting and inter-epizootic care of the disease ( Newton et al. 1997 ; Sweeney et Al. 2005 ) . Nasal casting occurs 2-3days after the oncoming of febrility and continues for 2-3 hebdomads in most instances, it can nevertheless prevail for months to old ages, peculiarly when croaky pouch infection is present ( Newton et al. 1997 ) . Following the initial veterinary scrutiny of the index instance the pace was put under a no motion policy. Rectal temperatures were taken twice daily on all Equus caballuss leting isolation of instances at oncoming of febrility, prior to casting of the bacteriums to cut down farther spread of disease ( Sweeney et al. 2005 ) . In this instance three distinguishable zones were created: Equus caballuss presumed septic and demoing clinical marks in the ruddy zone ; Equus caballuss holding had direct and indirect contact with septic Equus caballuss without clinical marks in the gold zone ; and Equus caballuss holding had neither direct or indirect contact and have non shown clinical marks in the green zone. This followed The Animal Health Trust STEPS guidelines. In this instance the ruddy Equus caballuss were stabled and the gold and green Equus caballuss were in stray paddocks. Any Equus caballuss in the gold or green group that showed a rise in rectal temperature were moved into the ruddy zone. Strict hygiene and disinfection protocols were advised. Owners of Equus caballuss in the ruddy zone were instructed to have on protective overalls at all times, use the pes dip provided and wear latex baseball mitts ( Sweeney et al. 2005 ) . Owners in the gold zone wore protective vesture or changed vesture prior to sing other Equus caballuss. Colour cryptography of utensils was utile to forestall sharing and hence indirect spread. Infected Equus caballuss besides had their ain H2O supply, which was cleaned and disinfected daily, following the AHT ( 2014 ) guidelines. Disinfectant used in these instances should be approved by DEFRA for general intent under the Diseases of Animals Order 1978 ; Virkon S an sanctioned germicide was used ( DEFRA, 2014 ; AHT, 2014 ) . Environmental continuity ofS. equiis hapless, nevertheless farther surveies are required to measure continuity of purulent discharges under field conditions ( Sweeney et al. 2005 ) Diagnostic proving for equine distempers comprises direct sensing of the presence of the bacteria itself via civilization or polymerase concatenation reaction ( PCR ) , or indirect sensing of a specific antibody response to that agent ( Durham, 2013 ) . Low-bacterial casting due to the phase of the disease, disparity in trying method and the trouble in insulating settlements in the presence of other bacteriums creates inaccuracies in corroborating presence of the disease ( Artiushin and Timoney, 1997 ; Dalgleish et Al, 1993 ) . In this instance a positive civilization and PCR from the nasopharyngeal swab ( NP ) confirmed activeS. equiinfection. Microbiological testing is needed to corroborate presence of the being. Culture of NP swabs does non normally insulate the pathogen due to its transeunt colonization of the nasopharynx. Despite 5 NP swabs fulfilling HBLB Code of Practice guidelines for set uping freedom from disease, Newton et Al ( 1997 ) is dubious of its diagnostic value. A positive consequence nevertheless does corroborate presence of the bacteriums. PCR detects the Deoxyribonucleic acid of the antiphagocytic protein of the bacteriums. Although PCR has dramatically improved sensing ofS. equiin clinical samples, it should be still be used aboard standard civilization ( Newton et al. 2000 ) . The most dependable equine distempers serology available is an check that targets the immune responses against the N-terminal of Antigen A and Antigen C developed by The Animal Health Trust ( Robinson et al, 2013 ) . From initial exposure there is a hold of two hebdomads before a noticeable seroconversion is seen. Therefore a negative consequence should be repeated 2-3weeks subsequently in instances that may hold been exposed ; serology indicates exposure merely and can non separate this from current infection or exposure in the last 6months ( Durham, 2013 ) . Horses in the ruddy zone had both croaky pouches examined for pussy stuff and a lavage sample taken 30days after the last clinical marks were seen. The samples were submitted for civilization, PCR and cytology. Those Equus caballuss in the green and brownish-yellow groups underwent serological testing at this 30day period to corroborate freedom from disease. Horses showing an elevated antibody titer were moved to the ruddy zone. Of the six Equus caballuss in the ruddy zone sampled two were PCR and civilization positive at the 30day grade. Harmonizing to Durham ( 2013 ) glade of infection in acute instances is a slow procedure and hence proving for relentless infection shouldn’t occur for at least 5-6 hebdomads. However HBLB guidelines advise proving 30days after the last clinical marks are seen, which was utilised in this instance. Determining when to try is hard due to the tradeoff between declaring freedom from disease Oklahoman and happening a proportion of convalescent Equus caballuss go oning to harborS. equi,that if left thirster would hold cleared the infection of course ( Durham, 2013 ) . Appropriate intervention is dependent on the phase and badness of disease. Most instances are managed with diagnostic and supportive intervention. Nutrition and hydration are of peculiar importance in dysphagic Equus caballuss ( Sweeney et al. 2005 ) . Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories can be used to cut down febrility and hurting associated with lymphadenitis and sore throat to promote feeding and imbibing ( Sweeney et al. 2005 ) . Attempts should be made to promote rupture of the affected lymph node leting drainage and blushing with dilute povidone I ( Sweeney et al. 2005 ) . When croaky pouches contain pussy stuff, voluminous lavage should be performed to forestall chondroid formation. Antimicrobial therapy remains controversial. Treatment at the oncoming of febrility can forestall infection nevertheless this prevents development of unsusceptibility. Once abscesses have ruptured antimicrobic therapy is unneeded and may protract the class of the disease. Penicillin, the disinfectant of pick is systematically sensitive and is indicated for disease complications such as terrible anorexia and relentless febrility despite NSAID therapy. ( Sweeney et al. 2005 ) . 6000mg Procaine penicillin was administered locally within the croaky pouches in all the ruddy zone Equus caballuss. This allows high concentrations to be reached to forestall croaky pouch empyema and chronic bearers ( Sweeney et al. 2005 ) In this instance new quarantine processs were implemented to forestall future eruptions. Any new Equus caballuss come ining the pace are to be quarantined for 3-4 hebdomads. Serologic testing will be used to measure low hazard Equus caballuss come ining the pace during this period with a follow up sample 2-3 hebdomads subsequently before leting commixture. All positive consequences at the 2nd trial will be followed by a croaky pouch wash to find between current or historical infection ( Durham, 2013 ) . Solid unsusceptibility develops in most Equus caballuss following recovery from equine distempers ; this persists in over 75 % of animate beings for 5years or longer ( Hamlen et al. 1994 ) . This indicates that if specific immunizing agents are used in a vaccinum a high degree of unsusceptibility is possible. However despite a accredited live attenuated vaccinum being available in the UK, take up has been hapless. The vaccinum is intended for Equus caballuss at hazard of exposure and aims to cut down the badness of clinical marks nevertheless it can non forestall the disease wholly. As the vaccinum strain contains the same familial stuff as deadly strains ofS. equi, positive diagnostic consequences do occur ; this can non be differentiated from natural infection. As is the instance it’s of import to execute serology prior to inoculation ( Sweeney et al. 2005 ) . Bibliography Animal Health Trust. ( 2014 ) . Scheme to Eradicate and Prevent Strangles [ online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aht.org.uk/strangles.org/pdf/steps.pdf [ Accessed 12 Nov. 2014 ] . Artiushin, S. , Timoney, J.F. ( 1997 ) . PCR for sensing ofStreptococcus equi. Progresss in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 418, pp359–361. Dalgleish, R. , Love, S. , Pirie, H. , Pirie, M. , Taylor, D. and Wright, N. ( 1993 ) . An eruption of equine distempers in immature ponies. Veterinary Record, 132 ( 21 ) , pp.528-531. DEFRA, ( 2014 ) .Defra, UK Disinfectants. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //disinfectants.defra.gov.uk/ [ Accessed 20 Nov. 2014 ] . Durham, A, E. , ( 2013 ) . Avoiding the booby traps and doing the most of the diagnostic trials for equine distempers. Livestock, [ e-journal ] 18 ( 6 ) , Available through: Liverpool University Library website hypertext transfer protocol: //www.liv.ac.uk/library/ [ Accessed 16 October 2014 ] . Hamlen, H. J. , Timoney, J.F. and Bell, R. J. ( 1994 ) . Epidemiologic and immunologic features ofStreptococcus equiinfection in foals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 204, pp768-775 Horserace Betting Levy Board. ( 2014 ) .Code Of Practice: Equine distempers. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //codes.hblb.org.uk/index.php/page/99 [ Accessed 13 Nov. 2014 ] . Jorm, L. , Love, D. , Bailey, G. , McKay, G. and Briscoe, D. ( 1994 ) . Familial construction of populations of ?-haemolytic Lancefield group C streptococcus from Equus caballuss and their association with disease. Research in Veterinary Science, 57 ( 3 ) , pp.292-299. Lindahl, S. , Baverud, V. , Egenvall, A. , Aspan, A. and Pringle, J. ( 2013 ) . Comparison of Sampling Sites and Laboratory Diagnostic Trials forS. equisubsp.equiin Horses from Confirmed Strangles Outbreaks. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 27 ( 3 ) , pp.542-547. Newton, J.R. , Wood, J.L. , Dunn, K.A. , DeBrauwere, M.N. and Chanter, N. ( 1997 ) . Naturally happening persistent and symptomless infection of the croaky pouches of Equus caballuss withStreptococcus equi. Veterinary Record,140, pp84-90 Newton, J. , Verheyen, K. , Talbot, N. , Timoney, J. , Wood, J. , Lakhani, K. and Chanter, N. ( 2000 ) . Control of equine distempers eruptions by isolation of croaky pouch bearers identified utilizing PCR and civilization ofStreptococcus equi. Equine Veterinary Journal, 32 ( 6 ) , pp.515-526. Robinson, C. , Steward, K. F. , Potts, N. , ( 2013 ) Uniting two serological checks optimises sensitiveness and specificity for the designation ofStreptococcus equisubsp. equiexposure. Veterinary Journal, 197, pp188-91 Sweeney, C. R. , Timoney, J. F. , Newton, J. R. and Hines, M. T. ( 2005 ) .Streptococcus equiInfections in Horses: guidelines for intervention, control, and bar of equine distempers. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 19, pp123-134. Sweeney, C.R. , Whitlock, R.H. , Meirs, D.A. , Whitehead, S.C and Barningham, S.O ( 1987 ) Complications associated withStreptococcus equiinfection on a Equus caballus farm, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 191, pp1446-1448 Timoney, J.F. ( 1993 ) Strangles. Vet. Clin. N. Am. : Equine Pract. 9, pp365-374 Timoney, J. and Kumar, P. ( 2008 ) . Early pathogenesis of equidStreptococcus equiinfection ( equine distempers ) . Equine Veterinary Journal, 40 ( 7 ) , pp.637-642. Waller, S, A. , 2013. Equine distempers: Taking stairss towards obliteration. Veterinary Microbiology, 29 November, 167 ( 1-2 ) pp50-60 Webb, K. , Barker, C. , Harrison, T. , Heather, Z. , Steward, K.F. , Robinson, C. , Newton, J.R. , Waller, A.S. , ( 2013 ) Detection ofStreptococcus equiracesequiutilizing a ternary qPCR check. Veterinary Journal, 195, pp300-304 Scheme to eliminate an ( STEPS ) Edited By Ben Adler, Wim Gaastra, James Gilkerson, Klaus Osterrieder, Stefan Schwarz and Uwe Truyen

Friday, November 22, 2019

School Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

School - Essay Example Teen Court is held in the court room at the Easton court house. Teen Court is similar to a normal court, but the judge, jury, and lawyers are all kids, 14-17 years old. When I went to Teen Court, some of my classmates were lawyers, and another was the Judge. I was given a chance to explain what happened at the party, and I was questioned by my lawyer and the opposing lawyer. When my case had been heard, I was sentenced by the jury. They sentenced me to serve on three Teen Court juries, and to do thirty-five hours of community service. To make things worse, my parents were out of out of town and my grandmother was staying with me. I was so upset over this I did not know what to do. I wanted to tell my parents when they called, but decided to wait so that I wouldn't ruin their trip. It was on my mind so much I couldn't sleep, and I felt terrible that I had let my parents down. I was also worried that I would not be able to play basketball at school. I love playing basketball; it's one of my favorite sports. Thinking about how I had done something stupid that might ruin my future dream of playing basketball at college was a real eye-opener for me. I have never driven while under the influence nor have I ridden with anyone when they were drinking and driving.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Mandatory Military Service Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Mandatory Military Service - Essay Example The researcher states that then thought of every able bodied person serving in the military elicits mixed reaction in different societies and other quarters, where some are for while others are against it. Engaging in military service for able bodied raises debates world over, which makes it crucial to assess the options between service or lack of it, whether mandatory service is more beneficial as compared to lack thereof. Mandatory military service should be recommended for every nation and state for different reasons that are only for the benefit of its people and the enlisting individuals, as a whole. One of the main reasons is that taking part in military service is an act of loyalty, and the right thing to do for everyone as a citizen. This is a duty in which every citizen should participate rather than wait for other members of the society to step forward risking their lives to protect those of others. This service ensures ignorance is eliminated from all members of society, a s they all know their responsibilities and what the military goes through. This is before they get to criticize the works of the military prior to understanding the implications of handling conflict, both armed and unarmed. In such cases, responsibilities of protecting the nation should be shouldered by all able bodied persons as without the mandatory system, the entire military would be a professional one. This is where the cost becomes overwhelming since the military wants to retain as many personnel as possible, which is not the case with mandatory service. Mandatory service ensures that the military is always ready with personnel and trains reserves since those that leave the military become reservists. These reservists are equipped with skills that benefit all members of the society regardless of conflicts as the same skills can be applied in life situations. Moreover, mandatory military service for every able bodied citizen is crucial to creating a patriotic nation and instill ing a sense of nationhood amongst the people (Imran). Serving in the military serves as an opportunity to inculcate a sense of pride in serving their country thus allowing them to fight for it and guard it under all circumstances. Although there are many other options from which one can choose to instill patriotism, mandatory military service instills pride and should, therefore, be practiced. It is also one of the ways through which one can serve his or her country; before going into the world to serve one’s own needs and interests. As such, it creates a sense of identity with the men and women fighting for the country by connecting with them. This connection is because the citizens know what it takes to be in the military, and how patriotic it is of them to serve in it. Serving in the military, therefore, should be enforced for every able bodied person for a defined period in which one evaluates his or her loyalties. However, mandatory military service should not be practic ed for clearly visible reasons that decapitate the values of the society, any society that is. This is provided the society in question follows a democratic view that should allow its people to make their own choices by joining the military. Furthermore, it ruins the social system by having the military leaders and other leaders with the power to influence the military have their own way. Hence, mandatory military service ensures that there are no reforms in the military, a heavy consequence for the people and the nation as a whole. This is because this service leaves people who are exempt from the service as lesser members of the society as compared to those who are enlisted. Therefore, they are discriminated against and used to achieve the means of recruiting and assigning officers (Connolly). Those that do not enlist in the military are required to serve mandatory community service that involves the providing cheap labor for other members of the society, as is the case of Germany . It is for this reason that every able bodied

Monday, November 18, 2019

What is Critical Thinking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

What is Critical Thinking - Essay Example Critical thinking will help a person to identify the truth. â€Å"Critical thinking is the process of purposeful, self regulatory judgment† (Facione, p.19). Critical thinking is nothing but correct thinking to find out truth. It is the scientific way of thinking used by both ordinary people and the scholars to know relevant and reliable information about the current world. Austine Cline (2010) defined critical thinking as an effort to develop reliable, rational evaluations about what is reasonable for us to believe and disbelieve. In his opinion, critical thinking makes use of the tools of logic and science because it values doubt over acceptance, reason over faith and rationality over wishful thinking (Cline). Critical thinking is an effort to find out the truth. It is not necessary that critical thinking always lead to truth, but it is the most reliable option available for finding out the truth. Rationality, self awareness, honesty, open mindedness, discipline, judgement etc are various features of critical thinking (What is critical thinking?). Critical thinking analyses things rationally rather than emotionally. For example, we have heard many stories in which a person tries to commit suicide when he/she lost his life partner. It is an attempt driven by emotions. On the other hand, a critical thinker will accept the fact that he/she lost his/her life partner and will consider it as part of human life. Critical thinking always cements its arguments on evidences. Critical thinking never encourages assumptions or hypothesises. The questions like what, why, how etc are necessary for understanding problems and critical thinking always encourage these questions to arrive at conclusions. Because of the backing of the established evidences, critical thinking always helps a person to take logical decisions. Logical decisions backed with critical thinking are

Saturday, November 16, 2019

The Korean War

The Korean War Abstract This study examines the relationship between declining public opinion towards the Truman administration during the Korean War ultimately leading to the dismissal of General Douglas MacArthur. In hopes of succeeding in Korea, President Truman appointed General Douglas MacArthur as commander of the United Nations forces and both anticipated a short military ordeal.[1] Research findings discuss the tendency for a decline in public support as a conflict lasts longer than anticipated.[2] Although The Korean War experienced an initial backing by the American public, surveys taken after the start of Chinese involvement display a gradual decline in support for the Truman administration.[3] Public opinion polls are used to determine the nations stance on a given issue. As the war continued, with no end in sight, approval ratings dropped and President Truman faced increasing criticisms. Truman had to make a decision to continue military efforts under the guidance of General MacArthur and hope not antagonize the American Public or to dismiss the hero of the Republican Party in an attempt to save the remainder of his presidency. Ultimately Truman decides to dismiss MacArthur on April 11, 1951 and experiences a backlash; public opinion for the president continues to decline due to the dissatisfaction from MacArthur supporters.[4] Introduction Individual actors play a key role in the establishment and implementation of foreign policy. Disagreements between these actors can result in conflicts and difficulty in making decisions. Throughout the Korean War President Truman and General Douglas C. MacArthur experienced such a situation. At the start of the Korean War the American public had gone through numerous hardships. The nation was still healing from two world wars and the great depression. These difficult times had unified the country like never before. When President Truman came into office his transition from Vice President to President proved to be challenging. At the time vice presidents had minimal impact in policies implemented in the United States let alone foreign policy.[5] Truman stepped into office in a time of global turmoil. Communism was a key issue for American foreign policy. When North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25th, 1950 the Truman administration felt that it was necessary to become involved.[6] The United States had to make a statement; communism anywhere in the world would not be tolerated. The same factors that created a cohesive group of American citizens allowed for the public to rally behind the government.[7] Americans would not tolerate any countrys attempt to oppress freedom. Research shows that shorter wars receive higher approval ratings. Initially the Truman administration along with General MacArthur reassured the public that military efforts in the east would be short and victorious. [8] As the war continued weak media censorship educated the American public as to what was occurring on the warfront.[9] The nation began to criticize and question if the Korean War would truly be a victorious anti-communist campaign. Public opinion continued to decline after Chinas decision to take part in the war in November, 1950.[10] American citizens had already experienced two world wars in a short period of time and found themselves fearing a third. The following year only lead to greater concern and less support towards the Truman administration. Increased spending in hopes of rearming the United States military required the use of money that could have been allocated towards domestic programs and policies. Democrats and republicans alike began to strongly oppose the Korean War.[11] The Truman administration became aware of their declining approval ratings. In an attempt to regain support the government attempted to inform the nation as to why the war was necessary. When these attempts failed Truman realized that the Korean war had no end in sight and felt that the United States should take on less aggressive tactics. General MacArthur disagreed with the president and was ultimately dismissed leading to more disapproval.[12] By comparing public opinion trends, errors and commonalities to the Korean war and the government this paper will attempt to analyze the factors leading to a consensus of overall disapproval in the Truman administration. In doing so it becomes evident that regardless of what the government attempted to regain public support the nation could not be convinced. The following sections will discuss how times of war greatly impact public opinion and how the conflicts between President Truman and General MacArthur lead to increased criticism of the Korean War. Literature Review: Public Opinion Polls According to Marshall Gordons Dictionary of Sociology public opinion polls can be looked at as the measurement of opinions on specific issues through interviews with a representative sample of a group whose views are to be described. Polls can vary in the material in which they cover; however, the most common types of opinion polls focus on voting intentions, political party support, views on the government of the day and its policies and views on major current public issues. This information can be crucial in understanding how much support a political group is receiving especially throughout war times or conflict.[13] The results of public opinion polls have proven to be important in assessing the nations perception and understanding of a given theme. Because of its significance, one must take into account the problems and errors present within the polling process. A large percentage of inaccuracies or misrepresentations of the data occur at the survey taking stage and can lead an invalid data set. Richard G. Hall, among others discusses the increasing use of public opinion polls over recent years. Media outlets place emphasis on results to give a sense of the American publics stance on a given issue. However, one must take into account that one opinion poll on a specific issue may influence future polling relating to the same issue. This could create an inaccurate representation of the population as a whole, favoring the dominant group from the previous opinion poll, thus raising the question do opinion polls merely analyze or do they also help create the opinions?[14] Research shows that the majority opinion on a topic can be looked upon as the societal norm. By having a norm established, a type of precedent may occur, causing those who may be polled on the issue in the future to change their previous stance to match up with societal norms. This leads to a skewed interpretation of the general population, which in turn makes the opinion poll fairly unreliable.[15] The polling process is comprised of numerous individuals being asked questions privately; however, a collective behavior amongst the masses has posed problems for public opinion data. Mass behavior and crowd action are two distinct types of collective behavior that fundamentally impact public opinion results. Mass behavior is defined as collective behavior of an aggregate of individuals giving an appearance of unity of attitude, feeling, and motivation.[16] If mass behavior is to take place during the polling process, the results from one individual to the next would appear very similar, resulting in an overwhelming majority on the issue. Crowd behavior focuses on the influence a whole or group can have on the individuals within it. While in a crowd, a single individual may feel less responsibility and make decisions solely based on the whole, thus relinquishing prior opinions and beliefs for those of the crowd. The concept of crowd behavior would impact public opinion astronomically ; if the data gathered and the opinions expressed are not the beliefs truly held by those surveyed, their polls may as well be considered null and void.[17] Public opinion polls serve a simple purpose, to identify the wants and needs of citizens. A common complaint concerning polls is that of knowledge. Higher educated individuals have been quoted as feeling a lack of confidence towards the outcome of polls based on the answers given by less educated and less informed individuals. Similarly, American citizens are not made aware of every minuet detail of a political issue.[18] Therefore, their perceptions and interpretations of the given issue may be skewed and bias, causing public opinion to simply reflect the misunderstanding plaguing society as a whole The notion of public opinion polls allows United States citizens to feel involved in the democratic process. Elections from the local level to the presidential emphasize a government run by the people; public opinion polls reaffirm this idea. Citizens are given the opportunity to assess the status of the country in times of tranquility but also in times of struggle. However, as stated previously, if a majority of individuals surveyed are ill-informed or simply following societal norms, the outcome may not be relevant enough to base a governmental decision. In addition to the problems with the polling process listed above, another type of error causes a great deal of confusion and inaccurate results. Similar to sampling errors in the electoral process, citizens may frequently change their opinions on a given issue. Late swing and disproportionate refusals, although commonly used in electoral errors, can formulate bias in the polling system. An individual who votes one way while surveyed but feels another way may causes representational errors; changes in opinion can be legitimate or dishonest. Another form or error can come from disproportionate results, meaning that the individual taking the poll or casting their vote may refuse to be interviewed and discuss their position before hand.[19] Public opinion polls do not always adequately portray the thoughts and concerns of a nation, but the data is still taken into consideration and ultimately may have some say as to how the president makes a decision. President Truman realized that by early 1951, American Citizens had grown tired and weary of the Korean War. This coincided with Trumans desire to end the war and bring troops home. Although it was in Trumans nature to pay little attention to public opinion polls[20], his own wants aligned with those of the general public in terms of ending the war. The increased amount of aggression and force General MacArthur used towards the Republic of China not only went against Trumans wishes, but also the wishes of a vast percentage of the population. Truman had to not only evaluate his own wants but also that of his country in deciding whether or not to dismiss MacArthur.[21] The Feuds between President Truman and General MacArthur portray two distinct public opinions. Those who felt that the war should be over soon and feared what any more involvement would cause sided with the president. MacArthur did not lack support from the entire country; there were still individuals who considered the general to be the hero of the Republican Party. He was viewed as someone who bravely led the United States. After MacArthurs dismissal, he was still thought of as a hero and was welcomed back with praises and gratitude by many.[22] The conflict between President Truman and General MacArthur may have impacted approval ratings by splitting the country through party affiliations. However, one must not look at the issues between them as the principal reason for a decline in public support. During times of war numerous factors are introduced to the American public. Citizens find themselves living their lives differently, missing loved ones, experiencing economic difficulties and coping with death. These factors alongside others play a large role in declining opinions.[23] Scott Sigmund Gartner and Gary M. Segura discuss correlations between overall public opinion and the introduction of stressors brought on by conflict. When analyzing public opinion data in relation to casualties it seems that the public is sensitive to relatively small loses at the start of the war and only to large ones towards the end.[24] On the surface it may seem as though increased causalities would be the sole factor in determining how the public views the situation. However it takes various factors to influence public opinion, this may include; mounting economic costs, impact of a soldiers absence from home, anxiety as a result of being involved in a war in addition to the overall number of deaths. The longer a war lasts the greater chances there are for a decline in overall public support. The initial stages of a conflict have a tendency establishing a rally-around-the-flag mentality.[25] In which citizens experience a sense of unification and support the decision to go to war in hopes of solving the problem. However as the war drags on initial approval ratings begin to decrease and a new sense of opposition forms. Because of this shorter wars typically have higher approval ratings, while longer wars face immense amounts of criticism.[26] General Douglas MacArthur had originally predicted that the Korean War would be a short campaign for the United States. American troops took part in the Korean conflict in large part as a stand against communism. The anti-communism movement and hope that the war would end quickly established a rally-around-the-flag mentality of the American people. Due to collective experiences such as World War I, the great depression and World War II American established a sense of commonality. This unified front and desire to end oppression resulted in support. However, as the war waged on citizens began to openly criticize the Truman administration and disapprove of any involvement in Korea. Methodology This study examines how declines in public support of the Truman administration lead to the dismissal of General Douglas MacArthur. To better understand the lack of support experienced by the government public opinion polls from the 1950s had to be analyzed. Online data bases were used to research public opinion polls in the broader sense. Articles from archival data bases clearly explained the importance of public opinion, what influences opinions, how they impact governmental processes and lastly the errors relating to them. This allowed for a comprehensive foundation for the study. Once the introductory research was conducted a relationship was formulated between public opinion throughout the war and the Truman administration. To gather pertinent information news paper articles, magazine stories (primarily from Life Magazine) and scholarly articles pertaining to the Truman administration were used. These resources were chosen because of data availability, at the time newspapers and magazines were the most popular forms of media outlets. Life magazine proved to be an intriguing and informative reference. The magazine began extensive coverage of the Korean War from the start and released weekly articles. The Stories covered all aspects of the war, from life in Korea to how the war had impacted the lives of a soldiers family. Archived articles from Life Magazine allowed for an interesting perspective of public opinion. The stories brought insight into how the American public felt about the war as things began to change. An issue released on July 10, 1950 titled Sy camore Backs the President discussed support of the Truman administration and their decision to enter Korea. Then after the Chinese invasion an article released on December 25, 1950 titled Sycamore Revisited interviewed the same individuals form the July 10th article to see where they stood. Those interviewed no longer approved of the Korean War.[27] Scholarly works such as journal articles and books allowed for an understanding of the chronological events taking place throughout the war. The conflict between Truman and MacArthur was made evident. By correlating public opinion trends to actual events one could begin to develop an idea as to why Truman dismissed MacArthur when he did. This allowed for a deeper comprehension of the stresses faced by the Truman administration and the factors leading to declining support. Findings: Factors Resulting in a Decline of Public Support President Harry S. Truman was supported by the American public when the decision was made to enter the Korean conflict. After North Koreas attack on South Korea on June 25th 1950, Trumans administration decided to take immediate action to repress any communist hostility. The decision to fight back was not solely based on the actions of North Korea; Truman feared a grand communist movement thus beginning a period of military reform. Trumans reform efforts allowed for a rearming of the military for immediate use in the Korean conflict and also for the long term application against communism.[28] The Truman administration began to implement new domestic reforms alongside the changes being made to the military. The fair deal built on Roosevelts New Deal and aimed to guarantee economic and social stability to the American public. The Korean conflict ultimately led to the demise of the fair deal. Increased spending on a permanent defense economy resulted in less funding available for domestic programs. The United States spent a substantial amount of money during the course of the Korean War. By wars end the defense budget rose from $13.5 billion to approximately $50 billion. The massive budgetary increase caused inflation. To handle inflation Americans entered a period of government control on wages, the price of goods and raw materials, raised corporate taxes and tightened credit. By implementing government controls the Truman administration was able to maintain support from the American public, both democrats and republicans seemed to trust the administration.[29] Along with military reforms President Truman appointed General Douglas C. MacArthur as the Commander of the United Nations forces during the first phases of the Korean War. General MacArthur gained recognition as a commander for the allies in the Southwest Pacific during World War II and was ordered to oversee the post-war occupation of Japan. At the start of the war it seemed as though the relationship between Truman and MacArthur would greatly benefit the United States, however, the opposite occurred. Truman and MacArthur frequently clashed on how to handle the war. As the administration began to be criticized and the overall consensus of the American public was that of leaving the war, Truman was forced to reevaluate the United States participation in the war.[30] The United States was able to successfully avoid mass economic havoc until China entered Korea in November 1950. Not only did the invasion cause a substantial amount of military stress but also economic struggles. The introduction of China as a player in the Korean War brought on the fear of a third world war. To counteract this fear the Truman administration began to speed up their military rearmament efforts, this resulted in increased inflation. November 1950 plays a pivotal point for Truman, at this time republicans and even democrats began to disapprove of the administration.[31] Criticism of the Truman administration and the war as a whole continued to rise as the end of the year approached. Life Magazine, which began publishing stories about the Korean War a week after its start, steadfastly discussed the issues facing the United States due to Chinas involvement in the Far East. An article titled Once More, We Got a Hell of a Beating published on December 11, 1950 stated that Chinas participation in the war changed everything and that Korea is an entirely new war as stated by MacArthur. United States troops had to mobilize quickly to suppress the Chinese; however according to the article mobilization was slow moving and consisted of weak man power. As the American public gained knowledge of the war through media outlets such as Life Magazine overall faith in the Truman administration began to deteriorate. Democrats and Republicans alike who had originally supported American involvement in the war found themselves questioning whether or not it was worth it.[ 32] In January of 1951 the Peoples Republic of China attempted to reach a peace agreement by asking for a 7-power conference to discuss the fate of Korea and Chinas position in the United Nations. President Truman along with the American government decided that it would not be beneficial to give China a seat in the United Nations; instead they censured the republic for aggression. Although China had been excluded from the United Nations MacArthur continued to torment the Chinese. In March he engaged in an ultimatum with the Peoples Republic of China. General MacArthur insisted that the Chinese remove troops from Korea. MacArthur then added that if Chinas troops were not removed they would face dire consequences. Truman was enraged with MacArthurs actions; President Truman did not appreciate how severely a single individual could impact foreign policy. The President realized that something must be done.[33] A few months after MacArthurs increased aggression towards China the general leaked news that he planned to use Chinese nationalists forces from Formosa in the Korean War. This plan of action was a complete contradiction to Trumans diplomatic policies leading to MacArthurs dismissal. Although Truman succeeded in firing General MacArthur the process was a difficult one. MacArthur had acquired a great deal of support and a substantial following from the Republican Party. Public opinion polls showed that MacArthur was incredibly popular in the eyes of the American Public. Because of this President Truman could not simply fire MacArthur without a valid reason and a warranted explanation.[34] Trumans decision to dismiss General MacArthur has been referred to as one of the major setbacks during the Korean War. After MacArthurs dismissal on April 11, 1951 media outlets released story after story on the conflict between Truman and MacArthur. Life magazine published an article on April 17th titled The Role of MacArthur an editorial piece chronicling his role in the Korean War. A later article released on May 7th titled Mac Rolls On focused on MacArthur as the hero of the Republican Party and embraced the general. Those who supported General MacArthur did not approve of Trumans decision to dismiss him resulting in declining public support.[35] General MacArthurs dismissal became a popular news story. Another topic gaining momentum was that of the Korean War leading to World War III. American citizens fear of this only increased after Chinese Involvement. The Public went from being told that the war would be a stand against communism to a long term global war. American citizens were still healing from World War II and lived with a constant fear of taking part in a similar conflict. The atomic bomb created an entirely new threat, one of complete and total annihilation. The impact of dropping the bomb on Hiroshima was catastrophic on the Japanese. The nuclear strength of the atomic bomb surpassed any bomb created before it. The American Association of the Advancement of Science discussed the use of the atomic bomb by the United States and described its power as follows:[36] Sixteen hours ago an American airplane dropped one bomb on Hiroshima, an important Japanese army base. The bomb had more power than 20,000 tons of TNT. It had more than 2,000 times the blast of the British Grand Slam, which is the largest bomb ever used in the history of warfare.[37] After the creation and use of the atomic bomb the worlds superpowers became increasingly eager to develop nuclear weapons to ensure a defense against one another. As stated above the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima was a deadly device. When World War II ended the atomic bombs strength had been compared to harnessing the basic power of the universe.[38] The American public was made aware of the force and destructive ability of the atomic bomb thus understanding the consequences of its use. A life magazine article titled How U.S. Cities can prepare for Atomic War discussed the publics fear of the Korean War ultimately resulting in a third World War. This led American citizens to create protocols and guidelines in case of nuclear warfare. By engaging in atomic bomb drills citizens dealt with a constant fear of being attacked, therefore, to reduce the chances of world war three the United States should end its involvement in the Korean War. [39] In an attempt to avoid a major world war President Truman deployed troops to Europe and provided aid and increased military assistance to members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). This decision faced a great deal of criticism, primarily from republicans and conservatives. Throughout the Korean War and at the start of Cold War struggles emphasis was placed on communism. Republicans and conservatives desired minimal government intervention in the lives of American citizens. Around this time the idea of McCarthyism began to take hold. Senator Joseph McCarthy from Wisconsin accused 205 members of government to being part of the American Communist Party. The stigma which coincided with being anti-American or anti-freedom caused a great deal of controversy. Senator McCarthys primary targets were democrats; he even stated that President Truman was soft on communism resulting in a decline of public support towards the Truman administration.[40] The Truman administration made several attempts to regain the support of American citizens. Although the Korean War did not end while Truman was president he still made an attempt to change his public image. Research shows that Truman did not typically give thought to overall public opinion; it was not in his character. However, the administration did make an attempt to gain support in hopes of having the American Public go along with numerous budgetary changes. The Truman Administrations Attempt to Regain American Support In the spring of 1950 the Truman administration began discussing an increase in defense spending. Government officials realized that public support typically declines during war times and felt that support would be needed when the budgetary changes took place. The administration created an approach to change the nations perspective of the consequences resulting from the war. The approach consisted of a simplistic and exaggerated information campaign, employing arguments that were clearer than truth. This campaign hoped to convince the public that the war a necessary evil. The administration realized that scare tactics would only work for so long; a new approach had to be introduced. Anti-communist rhetoric was constantly in the press. By frequently referring to the communist threat the government believed that the public would pay less attention to increased spending.[41] In the early stages of the Korean War media censorship was very limited. News papers and magazines were able receive information from the front lines and release them to the masses. President Truman was a complete contradiction to the transparent exchange of information from Korea and the United States. He attempted to avoid press conferences and discussions with the press. Truman even disapproved of other members of his administration conversations with the press. [42] Worries of overall public opinion became less of a focus for the administration after the Chinese invasion in late November, 1950. The Chinese posed a serious threat to the United States and their involvement in the Korean War. As a result the government made no deliberate attempt to mask or censor information from the American public. The opposite occurred; the public was then made aware of increased military spending. On December 15, 1950 Truman publically called for an immediate expansion of the armed forces to 3.5 million and declared a state of emergency in hopes of forcing the American public into accepting military rearmament and budgetary increases[43]. The following is an excerpt from Trumans address to the public; In June, the forces of communist imperialism broke out into open warfare in Korea. The United Nations moved to put down this act of aggression, and by October, had all but succeeded. Then in November, the communists threw their Chinese armies into the battle against the free nations. By this act they have shown that they are now willing to push the war to the brink of general war to get what they want. This is the real meaning of the events that have been taking place in Korea. That is why we are in such grave danger.[44] The Truman administration was facing a dire situation. The American public had been under the impression that the Korean War would be a short term ordeal. However as Truman stated in his address to the nation the Korean war had been pushed to the brink of general war by Chinese involvement. The public was becoming aware of how complex and drawn out the war was becoming. In an attempt to calm the public members of the state department began holding a series of off the record meetings with reporters, news correspondents and columnists to keep the American public informed of the situation on the war front. Discussion and Personal Opinions The Korean War proved to be devastating for the Truman administration. The American public had experienced turbulent times including the great depression and two world wars before the governments decision to take part in the Korean conflict in 1950. One can only imagine how horrifying and stressful involvement in the war would have been to the citizens of the United States. This study focused on the factors resulting in a decline of public support. At the start of the war president Truman was successful in having the American people rally behind the anti-communist cause. It appeared as though the war would eradicate communism from every inch of the globe. The United States, which stood for freedom would not tolerate communist expansion and mobilization. As a current citizen of the United States one can relate to the notion of protecting the rights and privileges of living in a democratic society. Civilians are given the opportunity to take part in governmental procedures by voting and evaluating the status of the nation through public opinion polls and surveys. Unlike a communist regime the American government does place emphasis on the wants and needs of the masses. This had to be protected any way possible. The Korean War therefore could not be avoided and the Truman administration was eager to send troops over. Before the Chinese invasion military efforts seemed to be successful. The United Nation forces under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur appeared to be making progress. As stated previously the overall consensus of the public was to rally-around-the-flag. With an increasing threat of a communist uprising the government and the general public felt that it was the perfect time to end communism once and for all. Propaganda campaigns constantly labeled citizens as communists. McCarthyism took a strong hold and spread like wild fire. People from all walks of life found themselves being accused of supporting the American Communist party, even President Truman and democrats alike were said to be soft towards communism or in other words more accepting of it.[45] One can understand how the threat of communism could have unified the nation in support for the Korean war. Media outlets repeatedly reported on the approval the public had on the war. At the time the public had been promised a short term military effort. The war seemed to be something that would end rather soon and achieve a highly desirable outcome. By winning in Korea the United States would have (1) repressed a communist expansion and (2) made a statement to the rest of the world. A victory in Korea would tell all other nations attempti

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

The Disease that Infests The District Essay -- Essays Papers

The Disease that Infests The District There is a disease that is sweeping across this country. From this disease, no one person has immunity. It strikes the poorest of families and the richest of families. It has the ability to harm the old and young, male and female. It does not care what your sexual preference is, if it wants to infect you, it will. What is this disease that does not care who it harms? It is the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, better known as AIDS. Even the capital of the most powerful country in the world has a problem with AIDS. In fact, Washington, DC has a major problem with this disease. The rate of new AIDS cases in the District and its surrounding areas is twelve times higher than the national average. â€Å"By the end of 1998, [†¦] there are 19,086 cases of AIDS in the DC greater metro area and 10,750 deaths from the disease (Whitman-Walker Clinic). One of the groups that is most heavily affected by this disease in Washington, DC as well as across the country is homosexual men, though in recent years that trend seems to be changing. It is for this reason that concern was growing in the District about the AIDS problem amongst the homosexual community. This is where the Whitman-Walker Clinic steps in. Located in the Northwest area of Washington, DC, this clinic has been serving the community as early as 1973. The clinic has an array of services mainly for the homosexual population that include testing for HIV and AIDS, support groups, legal services, the list goes on and on. One of the major aspects of the Whitman-Walker Clinic is providing prevention education to those who have not yet contracted the disease. One of the divisions ... ...ed their services to different areas not just here in The District. Primary care clinics are also located in Northern Virginia and most recently Maryland. â€Å"One of the biggest things we just accomplished was expanding primary care to a new Maryland facility. Every here [at the Whitman-Walker Clinic] is happy to see it happen, notes Chip Lewis. The hours that the clinic is open is also changing. â€Å"We realize that people have lives outside of having HIV and AIDS. We are working to expand the hours that all of our clinics are open. Convenience is always an issue; we want to serve as many people as possible† (Chip Lewis) It is about time that â€Å"as many people as possible† are being provided with service to combat AIDS, because too many people have been neglected from services for too long simply because they did not fit the nation’s stereotype of who contracted AIDS. The Disease that Infests The District Essay -- Essays Papers The Disease that Infests The District There is a disease that is sweeping across this country. From this disease, no one person has immunity. It strikes the poorest of families and the richest of families. It has the ability to harm the old and young, male and female. It does not care what your sexual preference is, if it wants to infect you, it will. What is this disease that does not care who it harms? It is the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, better known as AIDS. Even the capital of the most powerful country in the world has a problem with AIDS. In fact, Washington, DC has a major problem with this disease. The rate of new AIDS cases in the District and its surrounding areas is twelve times higher than the national average. â€Å"By the end of 1998, [†¦] there are 19,086 cases of AIDS in the DC greater metro area and 10,750 deaths from the disease (Whitman-Walker Clinic). One of the groups that is most heavily affected by this disease in Washington, DC as well as across the country is homosexual men, though in recent years that trend seems to be changing. It is for this reason that concern was growing in the District about the AIDS problem amongst the homosexual community. This is where the Whitman-Walker Clinic steps in. Located in the Northwest area of Washington, DC, this clinic has been serving the community as early as 1973. The clinic has an array of services mainly for the homosexual population that include testing for HIV and AIDS, support groups, legal services, the list goes on and on. One of the major aspects of the Whitman-Walker Clinic is providing prevention education to those who have not yet contracted the disease. One of the divisions ... ...ed their services to different areas not just here in The District. Primary care clinics are also located in Northern Virginia and most recently Maryland. â€Å"One of the biggest things we just accomplished was expanding primary care to a new Maryland facility. Every here [at the Whitman-Walker Clinic] is happy to see it happen, notes Chip Lewis. The hours that the clinic is open is also changing. â€Å"We realize that people have lives outside of having HIV and AIDS. We are working to expand the hours that all of our clinics are open. Convenience is always an issue; we want to serve as many people as possible† (Chip Lewis) It is about time that â€Å"as many people as possible† are being provided with service to combat AIDS, because too many people have been neglected from services for too long simply because they did not fit the nation’s stereotype of who contracted AIDS.